There are a few ways to do this at the moment. Simplest is probably to head to Cebu City and catch one of the many fast ferries to Bohol. They run from early morning to mid-evening. However then you have to deal with beautiful Cebu . . . :(.
More adventurous ways are to head for Argao on the east coast of Cebu south of Carcar. From here there are two ferries a day Bohol which leaves at 4am and 12:00pm and sometimes stops at Cabilao Island if you are looking for a small island break. The ferry company is Lite (awful web site!); do a web search to confirm times and service. Price is P500 (please check this) per adult and takes 2½ hours.
There is also a boat that runs daily from Oslob to Panglao Island on Bohol which leaves at 11:30am daily. For details have a look at the company’s web site. They are at pains to point out that they are not a ferry company which means “don’t depend on it” :).